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The Horizontal Reactive Media Treatment Well (HRX Well®) – Demonstration of a New Technology for Passive In Situ Remediation

April 25, 2019
2pm CST 

Dr. Craig Divine, Arcadis & Dr. Michelle Crimi, Clarkson University

A new in situ remediation concept termed a Horizontal Reactive Media Treatment Well (HRX Well®) is presented that utilizes horizontal wells filled with reactive media to passively treat contaminated groundwater in situ.  The approach involves the use of large-diameter directionally-drilled horizontal wells filled with solid reactive media generally installed parallel to the direction of groundwater flow.  The design leverages natural “flow-focusing” behavior induced by the engineered contrast in hydraulic conductivity between the high in-well reactive media and the ambient aquifer hydraulic conductivity to passively capture and treat proportionally large volumes of groundwater within the well. Clean groundwater then exits the horizontal well along its down-gradient sections. Many different types of solid reactive media are already available (e.g., zero valent iron [ZVI], activated carbon, biodegradable particulate organic matter (e.g., mulch), ion exchange resins, zeolite, apatite, chitin). Therefore, this concept could be used to address a wide range of contaminants.  The approach requires no above-ground treatment or footprint and requires limited ongoing maintenance. This presentation will discuss in detail the results of the modeling, tank tests, and field-scale implementation.  In general, the results demonstrate that capture and treatment widths of up to tens of feet can be achieved for many aquifer settings, and that reductions in down-gradient concentrations and contaminant mass flux are nearly immediate. Furthermore, the results confirm that the HRX Well® concept addresses many of the challenges/limitations inherent to remediation, including: (1) costs and time requirements associated with hydraulic containment; (2) delivery of injected reagent-based strategies in complex hydrostratigraphy; and (3) up-front costs and long-term hydraulics in flow-through permeable reactive barrier (PRB) treatment schemes. For many sites, it is increasingly recognized that contaminant mass flux and discharge may represent the most appropriate measure of plume strength and potential migration risk, and therefore remedial objectives and technologies focusing primarily on long-term mass discharge reduction will be increasingly favored. The HRX Well® concept is particularly well-suited for sites where long-term mass discharge control is a primary performance objective.

Dr. Craig Divine is a Technical Expert and Vice President at Arcadis US, Inc. with more than 20 years of experience in subsurface characterization and remediation. He has extensive experience remediating large chlorinated solvent plumes utilizing a wide range of technologies, including bioremediation, in situ chemical oxidation, permeable reactive barriers, cosolvent/surfactant flushing, and directed groundwater recirculation. He is the co-inventor of the Horizontal Reactive Treatment Well (HRX Well®) and the Min-Trap™; both technologies are currently being demonstrated and validated through ESTCP projects. Dr. Divine is a leader in Arcadis’ site evaluation and remediation technical knowledge community and is responsible for ensuring that Arcadis’ technical expertise is best applied for our clients’ benefit and to ensure that project goals are achieved.


Dr. Michelle Crimi is the Director of Engineering & Management (E&M) and a Professor jointly appointed in the Reh School of Business and the Institute for a Sustainable Environment at Clarkson University.   Her areas of research interest include the development of in situ remediation technologies for treating contaminated groundwater, chemical oxidation of organic contaminants, impacts of in situ remediation on aquifer quality, and the integration of treatment technologies for optimized risk reduction. She has been PI or co-PI on several research projects focused on treating groundwater contaminants, funded primarily by the Department of Defense’s Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) and the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP).  Her projects are often conducted in partnership with industry and consulting organizations and often have a strong technology transfer focus with the objective of moving technologies from the laboratory to full-scale adoption by developing guidance, tools, protocols, and workshops to support field application.






Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)

12pm CDT 

Mr. Brian Hoye, Emerging Contaminant Expert, Burns & McDonnell

Mr. Brian Hoye, PG is a Sr. Geologist and Project Manager who has served on and managed a variety of environmental projects for private-sector and DoD clientele. His practice has focused on emerging contaminants, new environmental regulations, and innovative site characterization techniques.  He is a core member of Burns & Mac Remediation Practice and leads their Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) Technical Group.