For multilayer printed circuit boards, permanganate (CAIROX®, AQUOX® and LIQUOX® permanganate) is applied to desmear or remove excess friction melted resin. Permanganate is also used for Etchback (enhance micro-roughness of drilled holes which are later copper plated).

Anhydrous Hydrogen Chloride (AHCl) – has application in both the solar and semiconductor industry including the production of trichlorosilane, a precursor of ultra-pure silicon and for pre-cleaning, or etching, silicon substrates in epitaxy chambers.